Experiencing pregnancy is a great joy for most women, but all the time you spend in a doctor’s office can be difficult. Suddenly, it seems to me that I need to decide which tests are needed without too much information to increase the level of financial information and stress. While often the process of drawing blood and advising people unilaterally can be stressful, some of these tests are necessary and can save lives for infants and mothers. It is important to remember.
We have prepared a list of tests that need to be done before and during all stages of pregnancy.
Early test during Pregnancy
The RH Factor Test (or rhesus monkey) looks for proteins on the surface of red blood cells. About 85% of the population are Rh-positive expressed proteins. However, if the protein is deficient (Rh-negative) and the father has it, complications may occur because the child may inherit Rh-positive blood from the father. The result is that the baby’s blood mixes in the mother’s blood, and the mother’s immune system attacks the baby’s blood, causing the baby’s condition known as hemolytic anemia. This situation is more pronounced in the second pregnancy, as her antibodies attack the fetus when an Rh-negative mother imagines an Rh-positive baby during the first birth when her Rh-negative mother becomes pregnant. You are worrying This can be prevented by a simple vaccination 72 hours after the birth of the first child around the 28th week of pregnancy.
Initial screening should also be done for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as HIV / AIDS, syphilis, herpes, hepatitis B and C, gonorrhea, chlamydia. This time, it is an important point to prevent the transmission of these diseases to the fetus. STDs can cause much more serious consequences, such as premature births, eye infections (due to gonorrhea and chlamydia), miscarriages and births (due to syphilis), as well as various complications in the baby. Drug administration dramatically reduces the rate of HIV infection from 25% to 7%. In the case of hepatitis B, if the virus develops in early pregnancy, the probability of transmitting the disease to the child is less than 10%. If it occurs late in pregnancy, the infection rate increases to about 90%. Chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea can be treated with antibiotics that are safe for the child.
Early pregnancy screening is a combination of fetal ultrasound and maternal blood tests. It helps find the risk of developing a specific birth defect in the fetus. Screening tests can be used alone or in conjunction with other tests.
Early pregnancy screening is divided into three parts.
- Ultrasonography of the fetal neck translucent (NT)
The cervical translucent screen uses ultrasound to examine the area behind the neck of the fetus to be more fluid and thicker.
- Two maternal serum (blood) tests
These tests measure two substances in the blood of all pregnant women.
Pregnancy-related plasma protein screening (PAPP-A). It is a protein made by the placenta during early pregnancy. Abnormal levels are associated with an increased risk of chromosomal problems.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). It is a hormone made by the placenta during early pregnancy. Abnormal levels are associated with an increased risk of chromosomal problems.
When used together, these tests increase your ability to detect if your fetus has a genetic birth defect such as Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21) or trisomy 18.
If the results of these tests are abnormal, your healthcare provider will suggest genetic counseling. Further testing may be required. This includes chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, acellular fetal DNA, or other ultrasonography.
Antenatal checkups during the second trimester may include some blood tests.
These are called multiple markers.
They provide information about the risk of women with certain genetic conditions and infants with birth defects. Screening is often done by taking a blood sample between the 15th and 20th weeks of pregnancy. 16-18 days is ideal. Several markers are shown below.
- Alpha-fetoprotein screening (AFP)
This blood test measures the level of alpha-fetoprotein in the blood during pregnancy. AFP is a protein normally made by the liver of a fetus. It carries body fluids (amniotic fluid) around the fetus, passes through the placenta and enters the blood. The AFP blood test is also known as MSAFP (maternal serum AFP).
Abnormal levels of AFP can be:
- Open neural tube defects (ONTD) such as spinal Bifida
- Down syndrome
- Other chromosomal problems
- Problems with fetal abdominal wall
- Twins, Multiple embryos make proteins.
- Wrong date, AFP levels change during pregnancy.
Other markers are :
Hcg. It is a human chorionic gonadotropin hormone. It is made from the placenta.
Estriol. It is a hormone made by the placenta.
Inhibin. It is a hormone made by the placenta.
Abnormal results for AFP and other markers may mean more testing is needed. Ultrasonography is often performed to confirm the date of pregnancy. Also, check the fetus’s spine and other parts of the body for problems. Amniocentesis may be necessary for an accurate diagnosis.
Screening for multiple markers is not a diagnosis. This is not 100% correct. This is just a screening test to find out if more tests need to be provided for pregnancy. The test returns an incorrect positive result. This means presenting a problem when the fetus is healthy. Or the result may be a false negative. This indicates that the fetus is normal, even if the fetus has health problems.
Performing a Stage 1 and Stage 2 screening test is more likely to detect a problem if there is a problem, rather than using only one screen. Using both first and second-trimester screening, 19 out of 20 cases of Down syndrome can be found.
Non-invasive prenatal screening test (NIPT)
This non-invasive stem cell test can be done 10 weeks after pregnancy. The test uses a blood sample to measure the ratio of the fetus’s DNA to the mother’s blood. It is believed that screening can detect 99% of all Down syndrome pregnancies. It also examines some other chromosomal abnormalities.
Amniocentesis involves taking a small sample of amniotic fluid around the fetus. It is used to diagnose chromosomal abnormalities and defects in the opening of the neural tube, such as spina bifida. Testing is available for other genetic abnormalities and your diagnosis depends on your family history and the availability of laboratory tests during the procedure.
Amniocentesis testing is usually given to women between 15 and 20 weeks of pregnancy, who are most at risk for chromosomal abnormalities. Candidates include women over the age of 35 at the time of delivery or who have undergone abnormal midwife screening.
A long thin needle is inserted into the abdomen from the amniotic sac to take a small sample of the liquid amniotic fluid called amniocentesis. Amniotic fluid is made up of cells shed by the embryo, including genetic information. Although the specific details of each procedure may vary, common amniocentesis is followed for this task:
- Your stomach will be disinfected.
- Your doctor may or may not give you a local anesthetic to numb the skin.
- Your doctor will use ultrasound technology to help guide the needle into an amniotic needle. He will extract a small sample of fluid for laboratory analysis.
- You may feel some cramps during or after amniocentesis. Active activities should be avoided 24 hours after the procedure.
Pregnant women with twins or several other types of orders are required to sample from each amniotic box to study each child. Depending on the condition of the infant and the placenta, the volume of fluid, and female anatomy, sometimes amniocentesis cannot be performed. The fluid is then sent to a genetic laboratory so that cells can grow and analyze. It is also expressed in AFP that the neural tube exits the defect. Results are typically available on a laboratory basis from about 10 days to two weeks.
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
CVS is a pregnancy test that consists of a sample of some placenta cells. This cell has the same genetic material as the embryo and can be tested for chromosomal abnormalities and other genetic problems. The test is available for other genetic disorders and disorders, depending on your family history and the availability of laboratory tests during the procedure. Unlike amniocentesis, CVS does not provide information about open nerve defects. Therefore, women receiving CVS require follow-up blood tests between 16 and 18 weeks of pregnancy to diagnose these abnormalities.
CVS can be given to women at high risk for chromosomal disorders or have a family history of genetic defects that can be tested in umbilical cord cells. CVS is usually caught between weeks 10 and 13 of pregnancy. Although exact procedures may vary, the process involves the following steps:
- Your doctor will insert a small tube (tube) into your vagina and cervix.
- Using ultrasound technology, your doctor will insert a catheter guide into the placenta.
- Your doctor will remove the tissue that uses the syringe on the other side of the catheter.
To take placenta cells your doctor may choose to perform a CVS, incorporating needles into your abdomen and uterus. You may feel some cramps during or after the model of the system CVS. Cell samples are sent to a genetic laboratory for growth and analysis. Results are typically available on a laboratory basis from about 10 days to two weeks.
Testing at 28 weeks
Glucose Tolerance Test :
A glucose test for diabetes is done at about 28 weeks’ gestation. Gestational diabetes is a temporary condition affecting 2–5% of all pregnant women in whom insulin is not able to break down enough glucose in the blood. There is about a 30% probability that you will develop the disease if the glucose test (GCT) is positive and your doctor will test for glucose tolerance (GTT). If you develop gestational diabetes, your doctor can help you develop a possible plan for diet, exercise, and insulin. The condition usually resolves after the birth of the child. Besides, some other conditions can also be determined by testing a urine sample, such as a protein in the urine, which indicates a kidney infection; Bacteria indicating a urinary tract infection, And ketones are a sign of dehydration.
Testing at 36 weeks
Group B Streptococci Test
Group B streptococci (GBS) are bacteria that are found in the lower genital tract in 1 in 4 women. GBS infection often does not cause problems in women before pregnancy. But it can be dangerous and cause serious illness in the mother during pregnancy. GBS can cause chorioamnionitis. It is a serious infection of placental tissues. It can also cause postpartum infection. Urinary tract infection due to GBS can lead to premature birth and delivery, as well as pyelonephritis and sepsis.
GBS is the most common cause of fatal infections in newborns, including pneumonia and meningitis. Newborns get an infection during pregnancy or the birth of a child from the mother’s genital tract.
The CDC Group B Streptococcus recommends screening all pregnant women in the vagina and rectum for 35 to 37 weeks’ gestation. If you have some risk factors or positive results, then you should prescribe antibiotics. This will reduce the risk of broadcasting GBS to your child. Children whose mothers receive antibiotics for a positive GBS test are 20 times less likely to develop the disease than those whose mothers do not receive treatment.
During pregnancy and labor, your doctor may want to monitor your fetal heart rate and other activities. Monitoring of fetal heart rate is one way to check fetal levels and pulse. The average fetal pulse rate is between 120 and 160 beats per minute. This level may change as the fetus reacts to the uterine position. An abnormal heart rate or pattern may be that the fetus is not receiving enough oxygen or is pointing to other problems. An abnormal shape may also mean the need for an emergency cesarean section.
Using the fetus (a type of stethoscope) to hear the fetal heartbeat is the most common type of fetal heart rate monitoring. Another type of monitoring is performed on the Doppler device. It is often used during antenatal visits to calculate fetal heart rate. During labor, regular electronic monitoring of the fetus is commonly used. Although the details of the specific sergeant may vary, an electronic inspection of the general process of monitoring the following process:
The abdomen is applied to the abdomen to mediate the transformation of the artery.
An ultrasound heater is attached to your abdomen, allowing the pulse of the fetus to be sent to the recording. The fetal heart rate is displayed on a screen and printed on special paper.
During delivery, an external tocodynamometer (a monitoring device mounted on the cervix with a belt) can record contraction patterns.
Sometimes, intra-abdominal monitoring is required to provide accurate readings of the fetal heart rate. Your water sac (amniotic fluid) must be broken and your cervix partially shaped to use internal monitoring. Internal fetal monitoring involves the insertion of an electric current into the cervix and the induction of electric current into the fetus.