Relationship between Malnutrition, Nutrition and Viral Infectious Disease

Relationship between Malnutrition, Nutrition and Viral Infectious Disease

Nutrition and viral infectious diseases are interconnected in some aspect of the human life cycle. Nutrition plays an important role in preventing disease and reducing morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, and other infectious diseases. A healthy diet can help people with these conditions better manage symptoms, maximize the benefits of medication, and improve their quality of life.

The effect of nutrition and Viral infectious disease can relate in several ways like :

  • How nutrition affects the development of the human immune system.
  • In which way the effect of nutrition on the occurrence of infectious diseases such as gastrointestinal infections, food poisoning (eg, botulism), intestinal diseases (eg, microbial diarrhea), and systemic infectious diseases (eg, brucellosis and typhoid fever).
  • What is the effect of nutrition on the immunocompromised patient?
  • The link between malnutrition and infectious disease. 
  • Relationship between overeating and infection.

Nutrition And Development of the Human Body System

Effect of diet on the development of human immunity begins at the embryonic stage. If during pregnancy, the mother, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy get enough protein, vitamins, and minerals, fetus tissues will develop very well. If the fetus is sufficiently developed, it will be of normal weight and size. A normal weight fetus is an important criterion for its health. Malnutrition adversely affects the development of the Immune system. If the immune system is not working effectively during this period, it can not prevent pathogens in the future. After delivery, breast milk provides adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals for the baby that can guarantee its growth and its health. Breastfeeding is the second most important step develop a strong immune system. Malnourished children and people who do not get enough protein and vitamins fall prey to their reactions to infectious diseases and bad vaccines. Therefore, nutrition is important to ensure high immunity for humans against environmental pathogens. The nutritional role in providing strong immunity against Infectious diseases are widely studied. For example, it has been shown that if a group of children gets enough food while another group of children receives the tuberculosis vaccine, people who follow a good diet have lower TB disease than those who have been vaccinated. Risk of developing tuberculosis, there is a significant decrease in people eating healthy foods and was vaccinated.

Nutrition And Emergence of New Infection

If food, as a source of energy for the human body, is having microbial pollution, it can cause various diseases including digestive diseases, sickness, and food poisoning.

People are exposed separately to food poisoning at different times of the year. In warm weather, the intestinal diseases, the most dangerous of which is Cholera. In many cases, eating poorly canned food can be very dangerous. The causative agent of typhoid fever: Salmonella species is also one of the most dangerous diseases transmitted through contaminated food and water. It causes many problems for patients, since then the causative agent is an antibiotic Resistance.

Also, microbial contamination is spread through water and food can cause severe diarrhea and infectious diseases among children. Brucellosis is an infectious disease that occurs due to swallowing contaminated food and water. Brucellosis is a common disease between humans and animals. Bacteria, Brucella can cause disease in sheep, goats, cows, pigs, and dogs. When thereby consumed by humans become infected with Brucella. Close contact with infected animal secretions, the infection can also be transmitted to humans. Amebiasis is a severe disease caused by drinking contaminated water and food. Similarly, toxoplasmosis is caused by eating the raw or undercooked meat. When a parasitic cyst enters the human stomach, it is released by the action of stomach acid and is absorbed into the liver through the intestinal mucosa and then lymph enters the nodes. Pinworm infection is also transmitted through food. Parasitic worm infection is also caused by inappropriate infection.

Malnutrition And Infectious Disease

The effect of malnutrition and the emergence of viral infectious diseases have been studied extensively has been reported about the prevalence of microbial contamination is a major health problem in the entire community where there is a malnutrition problem.

In this region there is missing one important vitamin, vitamin C in the diet is a strong immunity booster. The lack of nutrients, vitamin C can cause viral infection disease in most of the world’s poorest areas.

According to the WHO report 1968, a viral infectious disease can increase the condition of malnutrition. Infection can negatively impact the status of nutrition in the body and reduce the body’s ability to fight infection. Resulting from that infection can cause malnutrition and malnutrition may increase through this infection. 

There are some factors which weaken the body’s ability to fight infection and ultimately cause malnutrition include ;

  • Anorexia 
  • Metabolic damage 
  • Iron deficiency 
  • Zinc and copper deficiency 
  • Reduction of vitamin concentration 
  • Traditional behavior 
  • Reduced intestinal absorption  

Some recent research on Journal of Nutrition, the relationship between malnutrition and infection is discussed. A large number of studies have demonstrated bi-directional interactions between malnutrition and infection.

Infection negatively affects nutritional status through decreased food intake and intestinal absorption, increased catabolism, and the sequence of nutrients required for tissue synthesis and growth. On the other hand, malnutrition can cause infection due to its negative effect on the barrier protection provided by the skin and mucous membranes, as well as by altering the immune function of the host.

Nutrition and Severe Immuno Deficiency 

With severe immunity deficiency problems, susceptibility to infection may occur. A healthy person can eat toxic canned food and is not infected. However, severely immunocompromised patients can suffer from illness if they eat the same. The Physician doctors insist on patients with severe immunodeficiency, especially those with leukocyte count is 1000 or less, not to eat raw foods and fruits. Such products can transmit Pathogens. Patients are also advised to avoid consuming dry fruits if white blood cell count is below 1000.

Overeating And Infection

There is no relationship between overwriting and infection and not extensively researched. However, some studies have shown that overweight people are at higher risk of respiratory tract infection. Also, obese people susceptible to potential infection in diabetes and all diabetes patients.

Reference :

  1. For Image : UNICEF Website

 

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