Diabetes-Its types and test

Diabetes : Types And Diagnostic Test

When your blood sugar-also called glucose which is higher than the normal value is called Diabetes. Glucose is the main source of energy which we get from the food, we eat. Pancreas which releases a very important hormone, Insulin: breaks down the food into simpler form thereby releasing the energy mainly absorbed by the cells, for its functioning.

Due to the defect in pancreatic cells, insulin not produced in enough amount and eventually blood glucose not converted into the energy. This unutilized blood sugar stays in the bloodstream and increases over time. Increase the amount of blood sugar in the blood poses many types of health problems to every age of people.

The common types of diabetes are as follow: 

  1. Type 1 Diabetes: In this case, the pancreas does not make insulin. This is an autoimmune disorder means the body’s immune cells attack the pancreas and destroy it. This type can appear in any age group of people but mostly diagnosed in children and     young adults. Therefore, type 1 diabetic people need to take insulin every day to remain alive.
  2. Type 2 Diabetes: This type of diabetes is the most common and can occur at any age, even during early childhood. However, middle-aged and older people are mostly diagnosed with this type.
  3. Gestational Diabetes: This type of diabetes is common in pregnant women. When a baby is delivered, this goes away but there is a maximum chance that type 2 diabetes will occur in the later age of life of women. Diabetes, diagnosed during pregnancy is typed 2 diabetes.
  4. Other Types of Diabetes: Monogenic diabetes, less common type – which is inherited form.

The most common type of diabetes, type 2 diabetes are most likely to occur in people of age group 45 years and more, having a family history of diabetes and is overweight. Blood pressure, physical inactivity, race, and certain health problem increases the chance of having type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle also increases the chance of having type 2 diabetes.

Factors which increase the chance of type 2 diabetes are:

  • Overweight
  • Inactivity
  • Age
  • Ethnicity
  • Race
  • Prediabetes

There are few tips to decrease the chance of diabetes type 2 like reducing the weight if you are overweight, eat low calories food, and remain more physically active every day. Talk to your healthcare provider for a medical condition listed above or anything required for diagnosis.

Test for Diabetes

Few tests can be done to diagnose diabetes.

Glycated Haemoglobin (1Ac): This test measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the haemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein and gives as a result, an average of two-three months. This test doesn’t require fasting.

  • The level of blood sugar means more blood sugars are attached to the haemoglobin.
  • The doctor may use another test if your Hb1Ac test results are inaccurate – such as if you are pregnant or you have other forms of haemoglobin.

Diabetes test through blood testRandom Blood sugar test: For this test, a blood sample taken anytime in a day. This needs no prior fasting.

Fasting Blood sugar test: In this test, overnight fasting is required before giving a blood sample.

Oral Glucose tolerance test: In this case, first blood sugar is measured after overnight fasting. Then you will be given sugary liquid and sugar levels are test periodically for the next two hours.

In type 1 diabetes suspected patient, urine is tested for the presence of ketone – by-product produced when muscle and fat tissue are used for energy because the body doesn’t have enough insulin to use the available glucose.

The autoimmune test can be done to see if the patient has destructive immune system cells associated with type 1 diabetes called autoantibodies.

Gestational Diabetes Test

To evaluate the risk factor during the early pregnancy period your Doctor may order for the following test.

You may ask to test for diabetes in the first prenatal visit – If you are obese at the start of your pregnancy; you may have a mother, father, sibling or child with diabetes.



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